Biodiversity

The area is characterized by annual rainfall up to 3000 mm, temperatures between 18 ° and 30 ° C and relative humidity between 43% and 79%, with elevations ranging from 1800 to 2000 meters (5900 to 6500 feet). 

 

According to these data, the ecosystem qualifies - according to Holdridge´s life system zones– as low mountain tropical rain forest, which originally had a total length of only 1117.81 square kilometers, equivalent to 2.2% of the country.

Plants

Thanks to the study carried out by Jorge Bogantes (technician in Forest and Wildlife Management at the time), plus the contribution of Dr. Carlos Morales, 152 species of vascular plants, distributed in 69 families, have been identified.

This list includes shrubs, vines, epiphytes, herbs and ferns. These species represent more than 20% of the total vascular plant families known for the country. 

Some of the more common species are alder, nettletree, targua, oak, coyo, milktree, wild avocado, mahogany, "tacaco", sweet granadilla, native bamboo, palms, catbriers, shimbillo, cattle' s bean, "cucaracho", scratchbush, dogwood. 

Birds

Between 2006 and 2008 several studies determined that about 90 species of birds can be found in the reserve.

 

In 2014, with the help of the Costa Rica´ n Ornithological Association and Rose Marie Menacho, professor of the Ecology and Environmental Education Department of the School of Exact and Natural Sciences (Distance State University), the list of birds was updated, reaching 105 species (resident and migratory ).

Among the most common birds are the turkey vulture and the american black vulture, several wild pigeons, robins, trogons, hummingbirds, woodpeckers, woodcreeper, parrots, jays, motmots and warblers. 

Mammals

Due to the fragmentation of the forest, large species no longer inhabits the area.

Currently the reserve serves as a habitat for medium and small species such as coyotes, porcupines, different species of squirrels, armadillos, sloths, raccoons, opossums, wild rabbits and mice, as well as various species of bats.

Amphibians and reptiles

The list of amphibians and reptiles is not long, as there are just a few species adapted to live in a habitat around 6000 feet.

 

The most common species are robber frog, emerald glass frog, Fleischmann's robber frog, worm salamander, Godman' s montane pitviper, side-striped palm pitviper, green spiny lizard, green-bellied lesser galliwasp and several anoles.

Invertebrates

In order to increase the knowledge of the arthropod diversity of the reserve, biologist Gabriela Alméngor made an inventory of this groups at the end of 2008.

The collections were made using various methods (nets, traps, manual collection). The specimens were classified and preserved in two collections: one dry and one wet (in 70° alcohol).

The collection includes spiders, centipedes and millipedes and insects such as butterflies, beetles, mosquitoes, flies, bees, wasps, dragonflies and crickets.

Fungi

Fungi are the group less studied so far, but it is common to find mushrooms such as club ears, dead man's fingers, earth stars and molds of many types